As governments have evolved into more hybrid constellations of actors, public governance has increasingly resorted to collaboration between governments and business as well as public–private–civil society cooperation. For addressing global management challenges for good governance, it is crucial to understand public management, not as detached from private efforts and civic activities, but as resulting from the outcome of the complex interfaces and interactions between them.
The decades of market-emulating reforms have created a multitude of satellite actors orbiting around the government. In many cases, the expanding space between government and society has not liberated outsourced activities from government regulation or dependence on public financing.
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