Skip to main content
TAMK Student's Handbook

Report Guide: E) List of references

Purpose and layout of list of references

The list of references offers the reader the chance to see what kind of source material the author has used: how new and in what form the sources are. The reader also sees where to find more information and can check if the material exists. The reference in text has to begin with the same word as in the list of references in order for the reader to find the information.

The heading of the list of references is REFERENCES and it is placed at the end of the text body before the appendices. Spacing 1 is used. The references are separated from each other with one spacing. The list of references includes all and only the sources referred to in the text in alphabetical order. Other thesis-related sources the author has read during the thesis process are not included in the list of references. Marking of references is conventional, and there are several ways of marking them. In theses, the references are marked in accordance with the name-year system. Please notice that punctuation marks are used accurately in reference markings.

References are alphabetised according to the family name of the author and the first different letter in case of authors having the same name. Publications of the same author are ordered from the oldest to the newest. If several works or articles written by the same author in the same year are used, they are alphabetised according to the title, and a, b, c are placed after the year without a space character. If the author has one or more co-authors, the publications written alone are placed before the works or articles written with co-authors.


Lambert, P. 1999. – –
Lambert, P. 2005. – –
Lambert, P. 2008a. – –
Lambert, P. 2008b – –
Lambert, P. 2010 – –
Lambert, P., Reunanen, R. & Helle, M.(ed.) 2005. – –
Lambert, P. & Vanhanen-Nuutinen, L. 2008. – –

If there is both a printed and electronic version of the source, the references will be recorded according to the version used. If an electronic version has been used, the reference date and web address are included in the list of references. When an electronic source has a persistent identifier (e. g. DOI, URN), that should be used instead of the web address.

Published: 27.4.2021
Updated: 7.2.2024